segunda-feira, 4 de março de 2013
Para Download: PEOPLE, PATHOGENS AND OUR PLANET
Volume 1 - Towards a One Health Approach for Controlling Zoonotic Diseases
Publisher: The World Bank
Report No. 50833-GLB
Description: Whether living in urban or rural environments, humans tend to perceive the world around them as being shaped by culture and industry more than by natural history. Humans, however, are part of a biological continuum that covers all living species. Charles Darwin's 200th birthday in 2009 could serve to remind us of this. All animals, including humans but also plants, fungi, and bacteria, share the same basic biochemical principles of metabolism, reproduction, and development. Most pathogens can infect more than one host species, including humans. In 1964, veterinary epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined the term "one medicine" to capture the interrelatedness between animal and human health, and the medical realities of preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases or "zoonoses" -diseases that are communicable between animals and humans. One medicine signaled the recognition of the risks that zoonotic diseases pose to people, their food supplies, and their economies. Given the interrelatedness of human, animal, and ecosystem health, the rationale for some form of coordinated policy and action among agencies responsible for public health, medical science, and veterinary services is quite intuitive. Later, the term "one health" came into use, and later still, the broader concept of "one world one health," which is today used to represent the inextricable links among human and animal health and the health of the ecosystems they inhabit.
Link para Download: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/externa...IC1PPP1Web.pdf
Volume 2 - The Economics of One Health
Publisher: The World Bank
Report No. 69145-GLB
Description: This study aims to build on the findings from the previously mentioned studies, and seeks to provide more detailed information on the costs of the various functions and categories of expenditure involved in the establishment and operation of system for the prevention and control of emerging zoonotic diseases at country and global level. It will also seek to provide information on efficiency and effectiveness gains that will result from the introduction of a One Health approach. With these aims, the study has two target audiences: (a) project planners, who will benefit from the information of the costs of setting up surveillance and control systems to be used as benchmarks when planning preparedness and control operations; and (b) policy planners at the decision-making level, who would use the information on the efficiency and effectiveness gains to guide them in the decision-making process regarding the eventual introduction of One Health. This report disaggregates costs by task, making explicit those activities that are critical for effectiveness and identifying scope for efficiencies. The analysis draws on a range of data sources and earlier work, including integrated national action plans for, and World Bank staff appraisal reports on, avian and pandemic influenzas responses, a survey of the directors of wildlife services, assessments of veterinary systems in developing countries, and OIE (Office International des Epizooties - World Organization for Animal Health) analyses of disease prevention systems.
Link para Download: http://un-influenza.org/files/People...r%20Planet.pdf