sábado, 7 de maio de 2011

Informativo CEDOC N. 91, 2011 / Newsletter CEDOC N. 91, 2011

Centro de Documentación / Documentation Center
Objetivos/ Objectives
Identificar y atender las necesidades de información, adquisición, organización, almacenamiento, generación, uso y difusión de la información en salud pública veterinaria y proveer recursos bibliográficos técnicos-científicos al equipo de profesionales de la unidad y a los usuarios externos.

Identify and take care of the needs of information, acquisition, organization, storage, generation, use and diffusion of the information in veterinary public health and provide technical scientific bibliographical resources to the professional staff of the unit and to the users external.
Temas de interés general / Subjects of general interest

Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention  in Veterinary Personnel
The objectives of the Compendium are to raise awareness of the scope of zoonotic disease risk in veterinary medicine; address infection control issues specific to veterinary practice; provide practical, science-based veterinary infection control guidance; and provide a model infection control plan for use in individual veterinary facilities.

Compendio de Precauciones Veterinarias Estándar para la Prevención de Enfermedades Zoonóticas en el Personal Veterinário

Los objetivos de este vademécum son dar a conocer el alcance de los riesgos de las enfermedades zoonóticas en medicina veterinaria, abordar problemas específicos de control de infecciones en la práctica veterinaria, ofrecer pautas para el control de infecciones veterinarias basadas en la ciencia y proporcionar un plan modelo para el control de infecciones que pueda utilizarse en centros veterinarios individuales.

Informaciones disponibles en formato electrónico / Information available in electronic format

 Bioseguridad / Biosafety
WHO Guidance on regulations for the Transport of Infectious Substances 2011-2012
World Health Organization

The document provides information for identifying, classifying, marking, labelling, packaging, documenting and refrigerating infectious substances for transportation and ensuring their safe delivery. It provides practical guidance to facilitate compliance with applicable international regulations for the transport of infectious substances by all modes of transport, both nationally and internationally, and include the changes that apply from 1 January 2011. They replace the document issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008 (document WHO/CDS/EPR/2008.10). This publication, however, does not replace national and international transport regulations.
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Dengue – Estuios Ecologicos / Dengue – Ecological Studies

Spatial modeling of dengue and socioenvironmental indicators in the city of  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Teixeira TRA, Cruz OG
Cad. Saúde Pública 2011; 27 (3): 591-602
This study analyzed the spatial distribution of dengue in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006, and associations between the incidence per 100,000 inhabitants and socio-environmental variables. The study analyzed reported dengue cases among the city’s inhabitants, rainfall, Breteau index (for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Gini index, and social development index. We conducted mapping and used the global Moran index to measure the indicators’ spatial autocorrelation, which was positive for all variables. The generalized linear model showed a direct association between dengue incidence and rainfall, one-month rainfall time lag, Gini index, and Breteau índex for A. albopictus. The conditional autoregressive model (CAR) showed a direct association with rainfall for four months of the year, rain time lag in July, and Gini index in February. The results demonstrate the importance of socio-environmental variables in the dynamics of dengue transmission and the relevance for the development of dengue control strategies.
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Enfermedad de Chagas / Chagas Disease
Incidence of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission through breastfeeding during acute experimental Chagas disease
Martins LPA

Braz J Infect Dis. 2011; 15 (2): 116-118
Objective: To verify the incidence of T. cruzi transmission through breastfeeding during acute experimental Chagas’disease. Methods: Fifteen female Swiss mice were mated and, after pregnancy confirmation, placed in individual cages. A few hours after birth, the females were inoculated with 0.1 mL of blood containing approximately 3 x 105 trypomastigote forms of Y strain of T. cruzi and continued breastfeeding for 25 days. Results: In 142 offspring examined no infection through breastfeeding was observed. 
The low number of trypomastigote forms ingested by the newborn mice combined with biological and biochemical characteristics of blood trypomastigotes may explain the lack of transmission in this experiment.
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Enfermedades Desatendidas / Neglected Diseases
Neglected tropical diseases in the catholic world
Hotez PJ
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Apr; 5 (4): e1132
Roughly one-quarter of the world’s most common neglected tropical diseases and almost all of the cases of Chagas disease occur in the Catholic majority countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This finding highlights new opportunities to lift the poorest Catholics in developing countries out of poverty.
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Fiebre Aftosa / Foot and Mouth Disease
Development and validation of a prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 2C '3AB-based immunochromatographic strip to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals
Wu L, Jiang T, Lu ZJ, Yang YM, Sun P, Liang Z, Li D, Fu YF, Cao YM , Liu XT, Liu ZX
Virol J. 2011 Apr; 8 (1): 186

BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and many cloven-hoofed wild animals. FMDV serotypes O and Asia 1 have circulated separately in China during the last fifty years ,and eliminating infected animals and vaccination are the main policies to prevent and control FMD. Antibodies to NSPs exist in infected animals, and were utilized to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. The reliability of detection of 3AB or 3ABC antibodies is higher than that of other NSPs .The test of 3AB is still credible because 3C protein's immunogenicity is the weakest . The 2C protein, immediately N-terminal of 3AB, was used to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals. The use of the immunochromatographic strip is facile for clinical laboratories lacking specialized equipment and for rapid field diagnosis.
RESULTS: In this study, an immunochromatographic strip with non-structural protein (NSP) 2C '3AB was developed and validated to differentiate foot-and-mouth disease infected from vaccinated animals. A part of N-terminal of 2C protein gene and whole 3AB gene were connected and prokaryotically expressed as the antigens labeled with colloidal gold was used as the detector, the 2C '3AB protein and rabbits anti- 2C '3AB antibodies were blotted on the nitrocellulose(NC) membrane for the test and control lines, respectively. 387 serum samples were collected to evaluate the characteristics of the strip in comparison with existing commercial 3ABC antibody ELISA kit. The coincidence rate of pigs negative serum, pigs vaccinated serum, pigs infected serum was 100%, 97.2%, 95.0%, respectively. The coincidence rate of cattle negative serum , cattle vaccinated serum, cattle infected serum was 100%, 96.7%98.0%respectively. The coincidence rate of sheep negative serum , sheep infected serum was 97.6%, 96.3%, respectively. The strip was shown to be of high specificity and sensitivity, good repeatability and stability.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the immunochromatographic strip is a useful tool for rapid on-site diagnosing animals infected foot-and-mouth disease virus.
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Differentiation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease-Infected Pigs from Vaccinated Pigs Using Antibody-Detecting Sandwich ELISA
Chen TH, Lee F, Lin YL, Dekker A, Chung WB, Pan CH, Jong MH, Huang CC, Lee MC,
Tsai HJ
J Vet Med Sci. 2011 Apr

The presence of serum antibodies for non-structural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can differentiate FMDV-infected animals from vaccinated animals. In this study, a sandwich ELISA was developed for the rapid detection of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antibodies; it was based on an Escherichia coli-expressed, highly conserved region of the 3ABC non-structural protein of the FMDV O/TW/99 strain and a monoclonal antibody derived from the expressed protein. Diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 98.4% and the diagnostic specificity was 100% for naïve and vaccinated pigs and the detection ability of the assay was comparable to kits of the PrioCHECK and UBI. The agreement between results obtained from our ELISA and those from the PrioCHECK, UBI, and CHEKIT was 97.5, 93.4, and 66.6%, respectively. The kappa statistics were 0.95, 0.87, and 0.37, respectively. Moreover, antibodies for non-structural proteins of the serotypes A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3 were also detected in bovine sera. Furthermore, the absence of cross-reactions generated by different antibody titers against the swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was also highlighted in this assay's specificity.
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Establishment of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in BHK-21 cells
Huang X, Li Y, Fang H, Zheng C
Virol J
. 2011 Apr; 8 (1): 169


BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is able to cause persistent infection in ruminants besides acute infection and disease. Since the mechanisms of viral persistence and the determining factors are still unknown, in vitro systems help explore and reveal mechanisms of persistence in vivo by providing useful models for the study of RNA genome mutations and evolution. Ammonium chloride, a lysosomotropic agent that raises intralysosomal pH, reduces the yield of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during infection of BHK-21 cells.
RESULTS: The persistent infection with FMDV serotype O in BHK-21 cells was selected and established readily after treatment of ammonium chloride that acts primarily on the cells. Intact virions were observed located inside the endosomes. Viral genome RNAs and specific proteins were detected in the persistent cells to validate the establishment of viral persistence. Infection of the persistent viruses could not form plaques in host cells but virulence was enhanced. Basing on analysis and comparison of cDNA sequences of resident viruses and wild type viruses, 15 amine acid mutations were found, all of which were located in nonstructural proteins rather than in structural proteins.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, persistent infection of cell cultures with FMDV is successfully established with some distinctive features. It would be worthwhile to further investigate the mechanisms of viral persistence.
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Inocuidad de los Alimentos / Food Safety
Certification - results of a new national survey
Peterson C
Food Safety Magazine 2011 April/May Peterson C

While the U.S. food supply is considered generally safe, a steady stream of high-profile food-related illness outbreaks undermines that idea. Consumer confidence slides backward with each new episode ofEscherichia coliSalmonella and other health hazards splashed across the national news. Along with it goes the reputation of the suppliers who may or may not be responsible, ultimately, but who suffer the bruising reactions of an alarmed public.
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Latest trends in meat safety: how will wi validate meat plant HACCP systems?
Belk KE
Food Safety Magazine 2011 April/May


The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), as almost all in the meat industry are aware, announced last spring that they intend to clarify expectations for validating Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems via issuance of a Guidance document addressing that component of regulatory requirements.
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Training in an integrated food safety system: focus on food protection officials
Corby J, Wojtala G, Kaml C
Food Safety Magazine 2011 April/May
The time to modernize the food protection system as it prepares for the growing challenges and complexities of a global food supply is upon us. With the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA)—that mandates the integration of the food safety system and support for the development of a food protection training institute—the system is finally getting an overhaul.
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Canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Krenak indigenous community, Resplendor, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2007
Antônio EG, Malacco MAF, Gontijo CMF, Moreira EF, Caldas IS, Pena JL, Machado-Coelho GL
Cad. Saúde Pública 2011; 27 (3): 603-607
The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the local canine population in the Krenak indigenous community to detect parasites of the genus Leishmania and identify the circulating species and the proportion of asymptomatic dogs, while investigating associations between canine infection and the dogs’ sex, age, and hair length. A seroepidemiological survey was performed, including 63 dogs. All the animals underwent clinical examination to verify the presence of characteristic signs, and serum samples were taken for serological tests (ELISA, IIF). Infected dogs culled by the health service were necropsied and the material was analyzed using molecular diagnostic techniques. The cross-sectional study detected a 46% prevalence rate, and the circulating species was Leishmania (L.) chagasi. The statistical analysis showed no association between infection and the independent variables. The study generated data on the epidemiological situation with canine infection in the area, which was previously unknown.
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Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis and their relationship with the laboratory data, south of Brazil
Curti MCM, Silveira TGV, Arraes SMAA, Bertolini DA, Zanzarini PD, Venazzi EAS, Fernandes ACS, Teixeira JJV, Lonardoni MVC
Braz J Infect Dis. 2011; 15 (1): 12-16

Objective: To evaluate clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial aspects for the understanding of the disease characteristics and its relationship with diagnostic tests. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and analytical study involving 2,660 American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) suspected patients from southern Brazil was undertaken between April 1986 and December 2005. Data on population characteristics and laboratory tests were obtained. Diagnostic laboratory tests used were direct search for Leishmania spp. (DS), Montenegro skin test (MST) and indirect immunofl uorescent assay (IFA). Results: 62.3% of patients were positive for at least one laboratory test. DS test was positive in 65.1%; MST in 92.3% and IFA in 70.0%. Although Cohen’s Kappa test did not reveal any agreement with laboratory diagnosis for ACL, the association between MST and IFA tests increased positiveness to 98.9%; MST and DS to 97.2%; and IFA and DS to 85%. IFA and MST positiveness were higher among patients with ≤ 2-month lesion-evolution time. Most ACL patients were male (72.6%) in the age range of 15-49 years, featuring lesions during two months or less (53.9%) and a cutaneous form of the disease (88.0%). Conclusion: Findings suggest that for the adequate identifi cation of ACL cases a combination of laboratory tests that involves the association of MST with at least another test should be used.
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Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Maranhão, Brazil
Felipe IMA, Aquino DMC, Kuppinger O, Santos MDC, Rangel MÊS, Barbosa DS, Barral A, Werneck GL, Caldas AJM
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2011; 106 (2): 207-211

Leishmania infection in humans, dogs and sandflies was examined in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) municipality of Raposa, state of Maranhão, Brazil. In this study, we examined Leishmania chagasi infection in the blood serum of both humans and Canis familiaris and the natural Leishmania sp. infection rate in the sandfly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence reaction and polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect Leishmania infections in humans, dogs and sandflies, respectively. Overall, 186 out of 986 studied human beings were infected with L. chagasi parasites, representing an infection prevalence of 18.9%. An even higher infection rate was detected in dogs, where 66 (47.8%) out of 138 were infected. Among all Lu. longipalpis captured (n = 1,881), only 26.7% were females. The Leishmania infection frequency for the vector Lu. longipalpis was 1.56%. Remarkably, all infected sandflies were found in the peridomiciliary area. Furthermore, a high incidence of asymptomatic forms of VL in the human and canine populations was observed. The results of this study suggest autochthonous transmission of L. chagasi in this endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis because infection by Leishmania sp. was identified in all important elements of the transmission chain.
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Peste Bovina / Rinderpest
Peste bovina la primera infección animal erradicada en todo el mundo 
Kouba V

2011; 12 (4)
Desde el siglo XIX han sido reportados 114 países como afectados por la peste bovina. La eradicación global de la peste bovina, la más peligrosa infección de los animales causante de enormes pérdidas económicas, se logró en el año 2010 con la finalización éxitosa las operaciones contra esta plaga en todo el mundo. Las últimas vacunaciones se terminaron en el año 2006 y durante las últimas investigaciones específicas realizadas en el año 2009 ya no se encontró ninguna prueba de la existencia de la peste bovina.
Se terminó éxitosamente el más grande y el más importante programa anti-epizóotico internacional. Se trata del mejor resultado en la historia de la medicina veterinaria. La importancia histórica consiste también en el hecho de que se trata de la primera infección animal erradicada en nuestro planeta y no solamente en las poblaciones domésticas sino también en las silvestres. El método principal consistía en: la cuarentena inmediata em todos los sitios en que se detectaron los casos (incl. sospechosos), el sacrificio sanitario y la destrucción de todos los animales enfermos, sospechosos y los animales-contactos (stamping out); saneamiento del medio infectado y un periodo prolongado (minimamente dos años) de vigilancia específica siguiente la erradicación de los brotes. Las vacunaciones de las poblaciones amenazadas tenía un papel protectivo importante. Las ricas experiencias anti-epizoóticas obtenidas en esta campaña se ofrecen para los futuros programas contra las otras infecciones peligrosas.
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Rabia /Rabies
Paralytic rabies in swine
Pessoa CRM, Silva MLCR, Gomes AAB, Garcia AIE, Ito FH, Brandão PE, Riet-Correa F
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 2011; 42 (1): 298-302
Rabies transmitted by vampire bats was diagnosed in pigs with paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Diffuse nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, affecting mainly the spinal cord, was observed histologically. Despite the various diagnosis of rabies in pigs this is the first report of clinical signs and pathology of rabies transmitted by vampire bats.
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Raiva em bovinos na Região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul:epidemiologia e diagnóstico imuno-histoquímico [Rabies in cattle in southern Rio Grande do Sul: epidemiology and immunohistochemistry diagnosis]
Marcolongo-Pereira C, Sallis ESV, Grecco FB, Raffi MB, Soares MP, Schild AL
Pesq Vet Bras. 2011; 31 (4): 331-335

A retrospective study of paralytic rabies in cattle in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, diagnosed from 1978 to 2007 by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory (LRD) of the Veterinary School, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), with 77 outbreaks or isolated cases of paralytic rabies in cattle, is reported. A study of 11 outbreaks of rabies, observed from 2008 to 2010 in the same region, where 42 cattle aged 1-6 years died from a total of 686 at risk, with a clinical course of 4 to 14 days, was also made. The morbidity of all outbreaks diagnosed from 1978-2010 ranged from 0.37% to 20%; 24 cases occurred in autumn, 7 in spring, 14 in summer, and 16 in winter. The diagnosis was achieved by epidemiology, clinical signs and histological lesions. Immunohistochemistry using rabies virus polyclonal antibody was positive in all cases. In two cases non-suppurative meningoencephalitis was not observed, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. This technique is an important tool for the diagnosis of rabies and should be used in all suspected cases in which no evidence of encephalitis is observed.
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Salud Pública Veterinaria
Centro Panamericano de Fiebre Aftosa
Veterinary Public Health
Pan American Foot and Mouth Disease Center
Centro de Documentación / Documentation Center (CEDOC)
Teléfono / Phone: 55 21 3661-9045 
Se puede tener acceso a las publicaciones en el link citado bajo los resúmenes o solicitarlas a nuestro Centro de Documentación a través del correo electrónico.
It’s possible to have access to publications in the mentioned link under the summaries or to ask our Documentation Center for them via e-mail.

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