terça-feira, 15 de fevereiro de 2011


O Informativo CEDOC N. 88, 2011. Também disponível no Site de PANAFTOSA - http://new.paho.org/panaftosa - CEDOC

Astrid Rocha Pimentel
Centro de Documentación / Documentation Center (CEDOC)
Teléfono / Phone: 55 21 3661-9045

Aparelho portátil detecta vírus em 35 minutos

Um artigo publicado na revista  “Lab on a Chip” revelou a criação de um pequeno dispositivo portátil capaz de detectar vírus em apenas 35 minutos e que tem potencial para salvar milhões de vidas, sobretudo nos países que dispõem de poucos laboratórios clínicos.
Os testes realizados comprovaram que o dispositivo conseguiu detectar o vírus da gripe aviária em apenas  35 minutos. À mais-valia da sua rapidez, junta-se o baixo custo deste “micro-laboratório”.

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Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina (BSE) / Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) 
Assessment of exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a hypothetical country
Hutter SE, Kihm U
Rev sci tech Off int Epiz. 2010 Dec; 29 (3): 459-471
The authors present a basic quantitative spreadsheet model to evaluate the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) within a national setting. The model is based on information from BSE risk assessments undertaken in Latin American countries. The analysis focuses on the level of regulatory implementation and its impact over different time periods and estimates the potential impact if one BSEinfected animal is introduced into the production cycle. The information is consolidated so that the results of the evaluation can be presented for a hypothetical country, ‘Country X’. Evaluating the BSE cycle within a country may help in making decisions on where preventive or control measures should be placed and/or enforced. Such an evaluation may also be used as the exposure assessment of a risk assessment, recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health to determine the BSE risk status of a given country.
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 Fiebre Aftosa - Red de Bancos de Vacunas / Foot and Mouth Disease - Vaccine Bank Network
Toward a global foot and mouth disease vaccine bank network
Barnett PV, Bashiruddin JB, Hammond JM, Geale DW, Paton DJ
Rev sci tech Off int Epiz.2010 Dec; 29 (3): 593-602
A network of foot and mouth (FMD) vaccine banks has been initiated with the support of vaccine bank managers and technical advisors that participated in a workshop held at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, in the United Kingdom in April 2006. Terms of Reference that provide guidance for coordinated activities are under consultation. Practical and economic benefits can be realised from collaboration, which will be achieved through mutually acceptable mechanisms for the exchange of information and materials relevant to vaccine banks and their management. If administrative and technical hurdles can be overcome, the network has the potential to contribute significantly to the improved control of FMD worldwide. A ‘global’ and interactive vaccine bank association could be created by agreeing a system of resource sharing  that could orchestrate additional emergency cover with vaccine or antigen from the reserves of network members.
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 Influenza Aviar - Notificación de Enfermedades / Avian Influenza - Disease reporting

To report or not to report: a psychosocial investigation aimed at improving early detection of avian influenza outbreaks
Elbers ARW, Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn MJ, Zarafshani K, Koch G
Rev sci tech Off int Epiz.2010 Dec; 29 (3): 435-449
The aim of this study was to identify difficulties and barriers to reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by avian influenza (AI), and to explore possible incentives to reporting such situations, with the ultimate aim of facilitating early detection of AI outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy-makers from the competent authority, representatives of veterinary practitioners and poultry farmers. Personal interviews with a group of poultry farmers and practitioners were held to ascertain the difficulties and barriers they perceived and their proposed solutions. An electronic questionnaire was put on the websites of a poultry farmer union and the Royal Dutch Veterinary Association to investigate perceptions and attitudes concerning AI-suspect situations in the Netherlands. Six themes emerged identifying factors that hinder the reporting of a clinically suspect situation: lack of knowledge and uncertainty about clinical signs of AI; guilt, shame and prejudice; negative opinion of control measures; dissatisfaction with post-reporting procedures; lack of trust in veterinary authorities; lack of transparency in reporting procedures and uncertainty about the notification process. Recommendations to facilitate early detection of AI are discussed.
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Inocuidad de los Alimentos / Food Safety
Animal production food safety: priority pathogens for standard setting by the World Organisation for Animal Health
Knight-Jones TJD, Mylrea GE, Kahn S
Rev sci tech Off int Epiz.2010 Dec; 29 (3): 523-535
In this short study, expert opinion and a literature review were used to identify the pathogens that should be prioritised by  the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for the development of future standards for animal production food safety. Prioritisation was based on a pathogen’s impact on human health and amenability to control using on-farm measures. As the OIE mandate includes alleviation of global poverty, the study focused on developing countries and those with ‘in-transition’ economies. The regions considered were Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America. Salmonella (from species other than poultry) and pathogenic Escherichia coli were considered to be top priorities. Brucella spp., Echinococcus granulosus and Staphylococcus aureus were also mentioned by experts. As Salmonella, and to a lesser extent pathogenic E. coli, can be controlled by on-farm measures, these pathogens should be considered for prioritisation in future standard setting. On-farm control measures for Brucella spp. will be addressed in 2010- 2011 in a review of the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Codechapter on brucellosis. In Africa, E. granulosus, the causative agent of hydatidosis, was estimated to have the greatest impact of all pathogens that could potentially be transmitted by food (i.e. via contamination). It was also listed for the Middle East and thought to be of importance by both South American experts consulted. Taenia saginatawas thought to be of importance in South America and Africa and by one expert in the Middle East.
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 Legislación Veterinária / Veterinary Legislation
First OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation
Djerba ( Tunisia )
7-9 December 2010


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Antileishmania immunological tests for asymptomatic subjects living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area in Brazil
Silva LA, Romero HD, Nogueira Nascentes GA, Costa RT, Rodrigues V, Prata A
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Feb; 84 (2): 261-6

The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of different tests used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in asymptomatic subjects living in an endemic area. No gold standard is available for the diagnosis of asymptomatic infection with Leishmania. In continuation of a previous study, 1,017 subjects living in a VL-endemic area were clinically reevaluated. Of these, 576 had at least one positive serological test in a first assessment. About 3 years after the first evaluation, none of the subjects had progressed to clinical VL. Among this group, 246 subjects were selected, and five serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay p [ELISAp], ELISArK39, ELISArK26, indirect immunofluorescence test [IIFT] using L. amazonensis promastigote antigen, and an immunochromatographic test using rK39 antigen [TRALd]) and the Montenegro skin test (MST) were repeated. There was a significant increase in the number of subjects who tested positive in the MST, IIFT, ELISAp, and ELISArK39 in the second evaluation. For all tests, there were subjects who tested positive in the first evaluation and negative in the second evaluation. A positive result in the serological tests and MST in subjects from the endemic area studied did not indicate a risk of progression to VL and may only be temporary.
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Dogs as reservoirs for Leishmania braziliensis
Dantas-Torres F
Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Feb; 17 (2): 326-7

To the Editor: I have read the review by Sousa and Pearson (1), which provides a fascinating historical account of the Great Drought and the smallpox epidemic of the 1870s and their association with the emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ceara, Brazil. In their review, the authors went back to the 19th century, remembering the hard years experienced by those who faced the Great Drought, which prompted the immigration of thousands of persons from Ceara to the Amazon region, and a devastating smallpox epidemic, which resulted in the death of >100,000 persons. Later, they returned to the present situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.
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One Health

Operationalizing “One Health”: A Policy Perspective— Taking Stock and Shaping an Implementation Roadmap
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2011
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at the request of and in close collaboration with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), hosted a meeting entitled Operationalizing “One Health”: A Policy Perspective—Taking Stock and Shaping an Implementation Roadmap in Stone Mountain, Georgia, USA, May 4-6, 2010. The Stone Mountain meeting was the latest in a series of One Health meetings organized by diverse global institutions with the intent of providing a forum for national and international specialists to focus on policies and implementation of a One Health approach to improving human and animal health.
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Peste Porcina Africana / African Swine Fever
An analysis of the 1978 African swine fever outbreak in Brazil and its eradication
Moura JÁ, McManus CM, Bernal FEM, Melo CB

Rev sci tech Off int Epiz.2010 Dec; 29 (3): 549-563

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the African swine fever (ASF) outbreak that began in 1978 in Paracambi municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and the steps taken by the Brazilian authorities to eradicate the disease. The presence of ASF in the country was confirmed by isolating the virus, and its pathogenicity was certified by the laboratory of the Plum Island Disease Center, New York, United States. Even before the laboratory results became available, the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry declared an Animal Health Emergency, in which the official Veterinary Services adopted rapid control measures to restrain and eradicate the disease. These control measures contributed to the reorganisation of the national swine industry and stimulated the use of high-technology production techniques, as well as an improvement in herd health consciousness. All this contributed to Brazil becoming the largest meat exporter in the world.
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Producción Ganadera / Livestock Production
¿Cómo alimentaremos al ganado en la próxima década?
Fernández Mayer A
Ergomix.com Nov 2010
La producción ganadera está sufriendo grandes cambios: en su expansión, en su localización geográfica, en la demanda del mercado interno y externo, en la búsqueda de "nichos productivos" que permitan responder a la mayor y específica exigencia en la calidad de las carnes, etc. En este proceso, la calidad de los alimentos que vayamos a usar en la dieta de los animales resultará clave porque de esa calidad y manejo de los alimentos dependerán: la producción de carne (kg/animal/hectárea), la calidad de esas carnes y por sobre todo, el resultado económico del Sistema Productivo.
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Water requirements for livestock production: a global perspective
Schlink AC, Nguyen ML, Viljoen GJ
Rev sci tech Off int Epiz. 2010 Dec; 29 (3): 603-609
Water is a vital but poorly studied component of livestock production. It is estimated that livestock industries consume 8% of the global water supply, with most of that water being used for intensive, feed-based production. This study takes a broad perspective of livestock production as a component of the human food chain, and considers the efficiency of its water use. Global models are in the early stages of development and do not distinguish between developing and developed countries, or the production systems within them. However, preliminary indications are that, when protein production is adjusted for biological value in the human diet, no plant protein is significantly more efficient at using water than protein produced from eggs, and only soybean is more water efficient than milk and goat and chicken meat. In some regions, especially developing countries, animals are not used solely for food production but also provide draught power, fibre and fertiliser for crops. In addition, animals make use of crop by-products that would otherwise go to waste. The livestock sector is the fastest-growing agricultural sector, which has led to increasing industrialisation and, in some cases, reduced environmental constraints. In emerging economies, increasing involvement in livestock is related to improving rural wealth and increasing consumption of animal protein. Water usage for livestock production should be considered an integral part of agricultural water resource management, taking into account the type of production system (e.g. grain-fed or mixed crop–livestock) and scale (intensive or extensive), the species and breeds of livestock, and the social and cultural aspects of livestock farming in various countries.
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Rabia / Rabies
Distribuição do vírus rábico no sistema nervoso central em ruminantes naturalmente infectados
Silva MLCR, Riet-Correa F, Galiza GJN, Azevedo SS, Afonso JAB, Gomes AAB 
Pesq Vet Bras. 2010; 30 (11): 940-944

With the aim to study the distribution of lesions the rabies virus in spontaneous cases of rabies in ruminants and to determine the efficiency of the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA), mouse inoculation (MI) and presence of Negri bodies in the diagnosis of the disease, 48 cases of the rabies were examined. Samples of frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, rostral and caudal colliculi, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, basal nuclei and sections of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord were examined. Of the 48 samples examined all were positive on DFA and MI, and in 30 (62.5%) Negri bodies were observed. However there were differences in the results of the three tests among different regions of the central nervous system. In the samples of the cerebral cortex in 38 cattle, the frequency of inclusion bodies was low (11-37%), and so was the positivity to DFA and MI (60-80%). In contrast, all samples of thalamus, pons and spinal cord were positive to DFA and MI. In other regions of the brain stem, positivity to these tests varied between 60% and 96.7%. On histologic examination, the major frequency of Negri bodies (88.2%) was observed in the cerebellum. In eight sheep the DFA and MI tests were positive in all sections of the CNS examined and Negri bodies were found in three sheep. Only two goats were examined; both were positive in DFA and MI tests and in one Negri bodies were found. These results suggest that the  recommendations of the Brazilian Technical Manual for Rabies of Herbivores is adequate for rabies diagnosis, because their recommendations include the histologic study and the examination of cerebellum, and sections of the brainstem with high positivity to DFA and MI tests. However, a better recommendation is to send for DFA and MI half of the brain cut longitudinally and samples of the spinal cord, which will permit to examine one or two sections, and if those are negative to get back to the material and examine the rest of the sections. In contrast, to collect samples of the brain or half brain can be inappropriate for the diagnosis of other diseases of the CNS, for which the study of the whole fixed brain is necessary to recognize the symmetry or distribution of lesions. In these situations by the results obtained here, it can be recommended to send different sections of the spinal Cord for DIF and MI tests and to fix the whole brain for gross and histologic examinations.
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Eventos / Events
OIE Global Conference on Wildlife “Animal Health and Biodiversity – Preparing for the Future
23-25 February 2011
Paris, France

SISA 2011: Seminario Internacional de Sanidad Agropecuária
3-6 Mayo 2011
Habana, Cuba

6th International Symposium on Emerging and Re-emerging Pig Diseases
Barcelona, Spain
12-15 June 2011

Global Conference on Rabies Control
7-9 September 2011
Seoul ( Republic of Korea )


Centro de Documentación / Documentation Center (CEDOC)
Teléfono / Phone: 55 21 3661-9045 - 
Se puede tener acceso a las publicaciones en el link citado bajo los resúmenes o solicitarlas a nuestro Centro de Documentación a través del correo electrónico.
It’s possible to have access to publications in the mentioned link under the summaries or to ask our Documentation Center for them via e-mail.

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